News from Project A03

Andrea Schäfer
Andrea Schäfer
In "Worlds of Labour", the social scientist focuses on the refinement of indicators and their integration into the Global Welfare State Information System (WeSIS).

Dear Andrea, you have been with us for a few weeks now. nevertheless welcome to CRC 1342! You started at a difficult time, when most of the team has to work from home ...

Switching to a new team at a time when most people work from home is indeed a challenge in terms of communication. The team of project A03 welcomed me warmly and appreciatively and paved a straight path for me into the team and the work through regular exchange and a lot of patience.

Can you briefly tell us about your professional path so far?

My professional path is winding and characterised by many experiences, insights and cooperation with many colleagues. In addition to my Master's degree in Sociology, Business Administration and English at the University of Potsdam, I worked early on at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) in the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) department with Elke Holst on the topic of women in the labour market. After graduating, I moved to DIW to work with Jürgen Schupp and Martin Kohli on the connections and interactions between inheritance and wealth distribution.I then went to Bremen to the Graduate School of Social Sciences (GSSS, now BIGSSS), where I completed the graduate programme with great colleagues - such as Till Kathmann, Susanne Strauß and Can Aybek.

What happened next?

After only a short time in Bremen, I became a research assistant in Karin Gottschall's department Gender Inequalities in the Welfare State at the Zentrum für Sozialpolitik (ZES, now SOCIUM). During this time I worked with outstanding colleagues such as Simone Hasler, Karin Gottschall, Simone Scherger and Anna Hokema on topics such as vertical segregation, family policies, gender inequality and gainful employment. I was involved in various projects, including "InGRID - Inclusive Growth Research Infrastructure Diffusion (EU/FP 7)" with Olaf Groh-Samberg, the project "What comes after the family wage? Problems and possibilities of regulating income risks for normal workers" with Irene Dingeldey and in the project "Migration and transnational payments from a gender perspective" with Elke Holst and Mechthild Schrooten. It was also exciting to work with colleagues like Heidi Gottfried, Karen A. Shire and Sylvia Walby in the international network "Globalisation, Gender, and Work Transformation (GLOW)".

Due to care work and the restrictions of the Wissenschaftszeitvertragsgesetz, I went into organisational and political practice in the Central Commission for Women's Issues (ZKFF) at the University of Bremen in 2018. As a scientific officer, I advised and supported the ZKFF in all fields of action in the performance of its legal duties. Intermittently, I transitioned into academia for short periods of time, such as in 2019 in Sonja Drobnič's Department of Life Course, Life Course Policies and Social Integration at SOCIUM. Since 2019, I have been regularly teaching quantitative and qualitative methods in the Bachelor of Social Work at the University of Applied Sciences Bremen. Since 15.01.2021, I have taken a sabbatical leave from my position as an officer of the ZKFF and since then I have joined the project "Worlds of Labour".

Why were you interested in working in the CRC 1342?

I am interested in the CRC because it goes beyond the usual social policy research at institutions. On the one hand, because global development dynamics of public social policy are studied over long periods of time, and on the other hand, because the expertise of many people from different disciplines, cultures and countries is bundled here over several years. There is an open-minded atmosphere and the variety of perspectives creates a great, stimulating working atmosphere.

You have been part of project A03 for a few weeks now. What exactly are you working on?

I am working on the refinement of indicators based on normative and legal standards of employment relationships. Part of this work is to integrate the indicators developed into the WeSIS database. In addition, I advise the team on methodological issues and deal with the relationship between legal regulations on equality and gender-specific segmentation in the labour market.

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Project A03: Worlds of Labour. Normative Standards of Employment Relationships as National and Global Patterns of Welfare State Development


Contact:
Andrea Schäfer
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57095
E-Mail: andrea.schaefer@uni-bremen.de

Today project A03 "Worlds of Labour" presents one of its central results: the functional differentiation of labour law. Historically, eight ideal types of labour regulation have developed worldwide.

A03 Worlds of Labour: Laissez-Faire vs. Universalism

Discovering Functional Differentiation in Labour Law

One of the key results of project A03 "Worlds of Labour" (Mückenberger/Dingeldey) is the elaboration of the functional differentiation of labour law. So far, the historical development of labour law had been assessed in terms of strength of worker protection (or costs for employers), i.e. unidimensional. Our task is to offer a new perspective.

The differentiation into the three functions "standard-setting" (S), "privileging" (P) and "equalising" (E) allows to show the relationship between legal protection of workers and segmentation of labour markets. "S" represents protective labour standards concerning working time and dismissal protection, "P" norms introducing selectivity of protection and seniority rules, and "E" is formed by norms concerning antidiscrimination and equality rights for non-standard employment.

Based on the 36 indicators used for our Worlds of Labour-SPE index, we can show how eight ideal types have evolved historically in labour regulation, depending on the relative strength of each function. These range from the "laissez-faire" ideal type (spe), where each function measured is low, to the "universalist" ideal type "SpE", where the standard-setting and equalizing functions are strong, and the "ordre public social" ideal type (SPE) with strong selectivity as well, as the following figure shows.

The current (2013) set of ideal types based on own coding and CBR-LRI (Cambridge Centre for Business Research – Labour Rights Index) indicators results in the map shown below. It is used for the analysis of global patterns, but also for the historical emergence and differentiation of labour regulation. Here, figures and maps for each function (and indicator) are under construction also in historical terms.

SPE-Typology 2013 – Ideal types and first and second degree relatives (Data sources: CBR-LRI (2017) and own coding)

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For further information, consult A03's working paper (Socium SFB 1342 Working Paper Series No. 5) and its forthcoming publications.

More about the research profile of project A03: Worlds of Labour. Normative Standards of Employment Relationships as National and Global Patterns of Welfare State Development

Have you missed some of the previous windows? Click here for the complete CRC 1342 Advent Calendar 2020.


Contact:
PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute Labour and Economy
Wiener Straße 9 / Ecke Celsiusstraße
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-61710
E-Mail: dingeldey@uni-bremen.de

Dr. Heiner Fechner
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49-421-218-57070
E-Mail: hfechner@uni-bremen.de

Jenny Hahs
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57069
E-Mail: jenny.hahs@uni-bremen.de

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Faculty of Law
Universitätsallee, GW1
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-66218
E-Mail: mueckenb@uni-bremen.de

How to abolish child labour internationally

Jenny Hahs and Fabian Besche offer a simulation game for children aged 10 - 12 years on 31.03.2020 from 10 - 12 o'clock and 14 - 16 o'clock in the context of the Children's University 2020 hosted by the University of Bremen. The simulation game focuses on child labour and the right for education.

The children will get an insight into today's forms of child labour, its distribution and its history in interplay and tension with the introduction of compulsory schooling and the right for education. They form teams with other participants and become representatives of their country, advocating for their country's interests in a simulation of the International Labour Organization (ILO) conference on the abolition of child labour. In this way they also get a first practical insight into how international politics is made.

There are still a few free places and tickets can be booked on the website of the Children's University of Bremen.


Contact:
Fabian Besche
Jenny Hahs
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57069
E-Mail: jenny.hahs@uni-bremen.de

CRC member Ulrich Mückenberger paid tribute to the scholar of law Éliane Vogel-Polsky at a memorial service in Brussels. Mückenberger was invited as a representative of European labour law.

Ulrich Mückenberger spoke in Brussels on 19 February 2020 at the memorial service for the great European law scholar Éliane Vogel-Polsky. Born in 1926 and died in 2015, Vogel-Polsky was one of the great figures in European labour law. She was a professor, lawyer, human rights campaigner, feminist and passionate European. Ulrich Mückenberger worked with her on and published, among other things, the document "Manifesto Social Europe" (2001).

In her honour, the Université Libre de Bruxelles organised a colloquium with friends and colleagues of Éliane Vogel-Polsky. Mückenberger was invited as a representative of European labour law.

More about the event on the website of the Université Libre de Bruxelles.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Faculty of Law
Universitätsallee, GW1
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-66218
E-Mail: mueckenb@uni-bremen.de

Dr. Irene Dingeldey with students at the Federal Foreign Office
Dr. Irene Dingeldey with students at the Federal Foreign Office
With the support of CRC 1342, Irene Dingeldey and Master students travelled to Berlin for three days. They participated in workshops with the ILO and the German Foreign Office.

Together with students from the course "Collective and Indivdiual Labour Rights" from the Master's programme in Social Policy, CRC member Irene Dingeldey travelled to the Federal Foreign Office and the ILO branch in Berlin. They participated in workshops from 15-17 January.

The main focus was on the exchange between practitioners and academics, the application of theory and empirical findings to practice, and the demonstration of the process of norm-setting and implementation using the example of Germany.


Contact:
PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute Labour and Economy
Wiener Straße 9 / Ecke Celsiusstraße
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-61710
E-Mail: dingeldey@uni-bremen.de

The New School in New York City.
The New School in New York City.
Heiner Fechner, Jean-Yves Gerlitz and Jenny Hahs presented three papers at the annual conference of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, which took place in New York.

Our project A03 was able to give three presentations at the 31st Annual Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE), that took place at The New School in New York City:


Heiner Fechner, Jean-Yves Gerlitz and Jenny Hahs each received very good feedback on their presentations, as Hahs reports. She was also struck by the "inspiring, albeit certainly not uncontroversial, keynote speech" by Marie-Laure Salles-Djelic (Sciences Po, Paris) - "Prometheus to Dionysus: Can We Re-Enchant the Future?", in which she called on scientists to become more activist by saying: "We cannot only keep reading the world and lament ist state, we have to take an active part in changing too!"


Contact:
Dr. Heiner Fechner
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49-421-218-57070
E-Mail: hfechner@uni-bremen.de

Jean-Yves Gerlitz
Jenny Hahs
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57069
E-Mail: jenny.hahs@uni-bremen.de

Irene Dingeldey and Jean-Yves Gerlitz in Geneva.
Irene Dingeldey and Jean-Yves Gerlitz in Geneva.
Members of project A03 discussed their research on the regulation of labour standards and their segmentation effect with experts of the International Labour Organization.

Project A03 was on a research visit to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in Geneva from 3 to 7 December, represented by Dr. Heiner Fechner, Jean-Yves Gerlitz, Jenny Hahs and PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey. The ILO tries to implement minimum standards of labour regulation and health and safety in all countries of the world. In order to support this, the ILO is collecting relevant data worldwide and is pushing ahead with a wide range of studies and research tasks relating to the topic of labour. The ILO is thus an important partner organisation of CRC 1342 and in particular of project A03 "Worlds of Labour".

The research of project A03 on the regulation of labour standards and their segmentation effect was discussed with experts from the ILO's own research department (RESEARCH), the International Labour Standards Department (NORMES), the Labour Law and Reform Department (LABOUR LAW) and the Statistics Department (STATISTICS). Both the assumptions on the segmentation effect of legal norms and the planned analysis of the influence of colonial relations on the development of specific regulatory patterns met with great interest. The segmentation-effective influence of ILO instruments was also reflected. The use of leximetrics as a method for the analysis of labour regulations was commented both supportively and critically.

The ILO offered opportunities for cooperation both in terms of methodology and content. Very important: The exchange of data with the project and the database "WeSIS" planned by CRC 1342 is also welcomed. The exchange with the various departments is to be intensified in the future.

A first date will be the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the ILO in June 2019. At the large symposium "Globalization and Social Justice: A Century of ILO Action, 1919 - 2019", which takes place at the University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne in Paris, project A03 will be represented with a contribution by Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger.


Contact:
PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute Labour and Economy
Wiener Straße 9 / Ecke Celsiusstraße
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-61710
E-Mail: dingeldey@uni-bremen.de

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Faculty of Law
Universitätsallee, GW1
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-66218
E-Mail: mueckenb@uni-bremen.de